Net income represents the overall profitability of a company after all expenses and costs have been deducted from total revenue. Net income also includes any other types of income that a company earned, such as interest income from investments or income received from the sale of an asset. Gross profit can have its limitations since it does not apply to all companies and industries. For example, a services company wouldn’t likely have production costs nor costs of goods sold. Although net income is the most complete measurement of a company’s profit, it too has limitations and can be misleading. For example, if a company sold a building, the money from the sale of the asset would increase net income for that period.

The Net Income Formula

Net income is the final line of the statement, which is why it is also called the bottom line. Types of business expenses you might have include operating expenses, payroll costs, rent, utilities, taxes, interest, certain dividends, etc. This way investors, creditors, and management can see how efficient the company was a producing profit.

Operating Net Income Formula

This number appears on a company’s income statement and is also an indicator of a company’s profitability. Anyone who has seen taxes deducted from their paycheck knows that you don’t get to keep all of the income you earn, even if you’re a business owner. Companies must buy raw materials and equipment, pay employees, and often take out loans in order to make sales in the first place. After you subtract these business expenses from your total revenue, known as gross income, you’re left with net income, a truer measure of profitability. Net income, also called net profit, is calculated by deducting an organisation’s total expenses from their total revenue. It’s basically the spare money left over at the end of a financial year, and a business might use it to invest, expand, save, or give out to shareholders.

Will holds a Bachelor of Arts in literature and political science from Ohio University. He received his Master of Arts in economics at The New School for Social Research. He earned his Master of Arts and his Doctor of Philosophy in English literature at New York University.

The Net Income Formula

It’s usually simple to calculate your business’s net income after taxes . Net income is synonymous with a company’s profit for the accounting period.


Net Income is the most looked after the number in the financial statement of a Company. Save money and don’t sacrifice features you need for your business. Chris Murphy is a freelance financial writer, blogger, and content marketer.

Both gross margin and net profit margin are popular profitability metrics used by investors and analysts when comparing the level of profitability between one company to another. The term profit is also used when calculating the return on investment . ROI represents the profit earned accounting after deducting an investment’s market value from its original cost. Two critical profitability metrics for any company include gross profit and net income. Gross profit represents the income or profit remaining after the production costs have been subtracted from revenue.

The calculation simply takes the company’s net income and divides it by revenues, then multiplying by 100 to express the value as a percentage. When making period to period comparisons, it’s desirable to remove extraordinary (non-recurring) revenues and expenses. And, in the cash flow statement, it is used for calculation of operating cash flow. The cash flow statement begins with net earnings, then all non-cash expenses of the income statement are added back. Then, the net changes in working capital are also added to find the cash flow from operating activity. To calculate net income, you’ll need to tally up all your business costs and deduct them from your total revenue.

Return on Equity is a measure of a company’s profitability that takes a company’s annual return divided by the value of its total shareholders’ equity (i.e. 12%). ROE combines the income statement and the balance sheet as the net income or profit is compared to the shareholders’ equity. While it is arrived at through the income statement, the net profit is also used in both the balance sheet and the cash flow statement. After adding rent, utility, purchase, payroll, and tax expenses, your expenses total $7,200. Now, subtract your total expenses from your gross income to find your net income.

Gross profit shows a company’s revenue minus the costs of sales/costs of goods sold. After product costs, the remaining income should cover all other expenses. Net income is the amount of money that’s left after taxes and certain deductions are made from gross income.

The Net Income Formula

If you want to gauge your company’s profit margin against others, it’s best to analyze competitors in your vertical. Actually, I personally don’t use any tool apart from MS Excel or Google sheets to calculate net profit. It may seem a bit time-consuming, but that’s fully enough for me at the moment. It’s important to know this number so you can reach out to investors, secure a good line of credit when needed, and show shareholders you’re growing. The type of software you need will depend on the size of your business, the amount of transactions you have, and how many expenses you have. One of the significant aspects is to know about tax obligations; you can take help from self employed tax deductions guide to know about the prevailing trends in 2020.

Types Of Net Income And Examples

If you have more revenues than expenses, you will have a positive net income. If your expenses outweigh your revenues, you will have a negative net income, which is known as a net loss. Learn what net income is, how to calculate net income, and which financial statement to record your company’s net income on.

Here’s a screenshot from Apple’s 2019 financial statements showing gross profit, operating income, and net income. It measures the percentage of the total revenue accounting that is left as profits. You can also calculate net income for a stock by subtracting all the expense items on the company’s income statement from the revenue.

The Net Income Formula

It is common to use annual net income and review it for growth over multiple years. Quarterly net income is scrutinized as Irs Form 2553 Instructions public companies release earnings reports each financial quarter, with net income at the bottom of the income statement.


Like many companies, you may have other revenue streams like stock dividends, rent income, or asset sales. Net income is defined as a business’ total earnings, or its profits. This net income number will appear on every company’s income statement and is a track record of how profitable a company is. This number can be tracked over time to give investors, executives, and other stakeholders an idea of how the company is growing. If you use cash accounting, in which you only report transactions when money changes hands, then your net income is also your cash flow. If you use accrual accounting, which counts money earned but not paid, cash flow is a separate figure with a separate financial statement.

  • The footnotes of the company financial statement will explain what measures were used and how net income was calculated.
  • Adjusted gross income equals your gross income minus certain adjustments.
  • Net income shows how much money a company is making after subtracting all expenses.
  • Although cash flow is a key metric for a healthy business, it’s not the same thing as net income.
  • Your Cost of Goods and Services includes the funds you directly spent on creating/developing your product or service.
  • For example, if a company sold a building, the money from the sale of the asset would increase net income for that period.

If a company reports an increase in revenue, but it’s more than offset by an increase in production costs, such as labor, the gross profit will be lower for that period. Both gross profit and net income are found on the income statement.

Instead, other comprehensive income is placed after the net income figure in the income statement. That being said, most businesspeople understand startup businesses need time to reach profitability. An investor in your cat toothpaste company may well understand that you plan to lose money attracting customers in the first 2 years and make your profits in years 3-5. Put another way, revenue equals gross income, but not net income. For example, investors, managers, creditors, etc. use net income figures to determine how efficiently companies make money. By understanding the ins-and-outs of this foundational concept, you can avoid costly miscalculations and misunderstandings – and create effective long-term strategies.

What Is Gross Income?

NI flows through the balanced sheet through retained earnings, and through the cash flow in the indirect method. ScaleFactor is on a mission to remove the barriers to financial clarity that every business owner faces. It’s the final figure all the way at the bottom of the income statement. Note that other comprehensive income is a separate category of unrealized gains and losses that is not included in the derivation of net income.

Author: Ingrid Lunden

Published On: March 30th, 2021 / Categories: Bookkeeping /

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